Chinese input methods for computer
Because the Chinese language is a logographic language in which one "character" corresponds roughly to one "word" or meaning there are vastly more characters, or glyphs, than there are on a standard computer keyboard.
To allow the input of Chinese using standard keyboards a variety of keyboard input methods have been designed.
Keyboard input methods can be classified in 3 main types: by encoding, by pronunciation, and by structure of the characters. The following are just some samples of Chinese input methods. Many of those input methods have variations. Full Pinyin and Double Pinyin are variation of the Pinyin input method. In addition, the methods which require the user to select a character from a menu generally have sophisticated methods for guessing which characters the user intends based on context.
Different people are most comfortably with different methods and each standard has its strengths and weaknesses. For example, for someone who is already familiar with pinyin, the pinyin method can be learned most quickly. However, the maximum typing rate is limited, and learning the system is difficult for some who doesn't know pinyin. Wubi takes much effort to learn, but expert typists can enter text much faster than the phonetic methods. Because of these factors, there is no likelihood of a "standard" method evolving.
Other means of inputting Chinese characters are not widely used but include stylus and tablet, with hand-writing recognition software, as the most common alternative, and then OCR optical character recognition (OCR) and voice recognition. As with English language all these methods suffer from high error rates.
Cantonese Pinyin (粤语拼音)
Wubi method (五笔字型)
Cangjie method (仓颉)
Shouwei method (首尾字型)
Zheng code method (郑码)
Dayi method (太易)
Five Stroke method (五笔划)
Four corner method (四角码)
Stroke Count method (笔画)
Combination of Pronunciation and Character Structure
Tze-loi method (子来)
Renzhi code method (认知吗)
Main article: Chinese character encoding
Telegraph code (电报码)
Zhùyīn Fúhào (注音符號), or "The Notation of Annotated Sounds", often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) for the first four syllables in this Chinese phonetic symbols, is the national phonetic system of the Republic of China (based on Taiwan) for teaching the Chinese languages, especially Mandarin to illiterate Mandarin-speaking children (See ). The system uses 37 special symbols to represent the Mandarin sounds: 21 consonants and 16 vowels. There is a one symbol-one sound correspondence.
Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation led by Woo Tsin-hang from 1912 to 13 created a system called Guoyin Zimu (國音字母 "National Language Symbols") or Zhuyin Zimu (註音字母 or 注音字母 "Sound-annotating Symbols") which is based on Zhang Binglin's shorthands. (For differences with the Zhang system, see Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation#Phonetic symbols.) A draft was released on July 11, 1913 by the Republic of China National Ministry of Education, the it was not officially proclaimed until November 23, 1918, however. Zhuyin Zimu was renamed to Zhuyin Fuhao in April 1930.
The ROC Education Ministry has attempted for many years to phase out the use of Zhuyin in favor of a system based on Roman characters (see MPS II). However, this transition has been extremely slow due to the difficulty in teaching elementary school teachers a new Roman-based system.
Despite the lack of an official document was release explaining the details of the origin, later scholars pointed out the origins of some of the symbols, which are mainly fragments (not Simplified Chinese) from a character that contains the sounds that they represent. For example:
ㄅ (b) ← 白 (bai)
ㄆ (p) ← 波 (po)
ㄋ (n) ← 乃 (nai)
ㄒ (x) ←下 (xia)
ㄙ (s) ← 私 (si)
ㄝ (ê) ← 也 (ye)
ㄦ (er) ← 兒 (er)
A small number was done by additional strokes, for example:
ㄉ (d) ← 刀 (dao)
ㄌ (l) ← 力 (li)
ㄘ (c) ← 七 (qi, formerly ci)
A minority is virtually identical to Chinese characters still in use, for example:
ㄧ (i) ← 一 (yi)
ㄚ (a) ← 丫 (ya)
Many are nearly entirely identical radicals with the same sounds, for example:
ㄈ (f) ← 匚 (fang)
ㄏ (h) ← 厂 (han)
ㄗ (z) ← 卩 (jié)
ㄕ (sh) ← 尸 (shi)
ㄤ (ang) ← 尢 (wāng)
ㄩ (ü) ← 凵 (yu)
ㄡ (ou) ← 又 (you)
ㄖ (r) ← 日 (ri)
ㄔ (chi) ← 彳 (chi)
ㄇ (m) ← 冂 (jīong) which does not the same sound, but it exists in 冒 (mào) and 冪 (mì)
Other symbols, mostly vowel symbols, are based entirely or partly on obsolete variants of characters, for example:
ㄨ (u) ← 五 (wu), ancient form shows (the intersection of Yin and Yang bounded by Heaven and Earth).
There remains many to be completely new design (or at least have origin so obscured that non-inventors cannot easily recognize), constrained only by the need to appear like a Chinese character and can be written so. As a result, in typography, they almost always are written like using an ink brush in the Regular Script style of Chinese calligraphy.
These ruby characters are printed next to the Chinese characters in young children's books. One seldom sees these symbols used in adult publications except as pronunciation guide (or index system) in dictionary entries. Bopomofo is also used as an input method for Chinese text in computer.
Unlike pinyin, the sole purpose for zhuyin in elementary education is to teach proper Mandarin pronunciation to children. School children learn the symbols so that they can look up pronunciation in a Chinese dictionary properly. Pinyin, on the other hand, is dual-purpose. Other than a pronunciation notation, pinyin is used widely in publications in mainland China. Some books from mainland China are published purely in pinyin with no trace of a single Chinese character. Those books are targeted to minority tribal groups or Westerners who know verbal Mandarin but have difficulty recognizing written Chinese characters.
Zhuyin symbols are written like Chinese characters, including the general order of strokes and positioning. It is always to the right of the Chinese characters, whether the characters are vertical or horizontal. Very rarely do they appear on top of Chinese characters when written horizontally.
Zhuyin vs. Hanyu Pinyin
Zhuyin and Pinyin are based on the same Mandarin pronunciations, hence a 1-to-1 mapping between the two systems. Zhuyin is used in Taiwan with bopomofo symbols. Pinyin is used in Mainland China with roman symbols.
Bopomofo/zhuyin (the 'zhuyin' and 'pinyin' columns shows equivalency) zhuyin pinyin zhuyin pinyin zhuyin pinyin zhuyin pinyin
ㄅ B ㄆ P ㄇ M ㄈ F
ㄉ D ㄊ T ㄋ N ㄌ L
ㄍ G ㄎ K ㄏ H
ㄐ J ㄑ Q ㄒ X
ㄓ Zh ㄔ Ch ㄕ Sh ㄖ R
ㄗ Z ㄘ C ㄙ S
ㄚ A ㄛ O ㄜ E ㄝ Ê
ㄞ Ai ㄟ Ei ㄠ Ao ㄡ Ou
ㄢ An ㄣ En ㄤ Ang ㄥ Eng
ㄦ Er ㄧ I ㄨ U ㄩ Ü
Dialect (non-Mandarin) letters (not many web browsers can display these glyphs, see for PDF pictures.) Char Name Char Name Char Name
ㄪ V ㄫ Ng ㄬ Gn
Extended Bopomofo for Min-nan and Hakka Char Name Char Name Char Name Char Name
ㆠ Bu ㆦ Oo ㆬ Im ㆲ Ong
ㆡ Zi ㆧ Onn ㆭ Ngg ㆳ Innn
ㆢ Ji ㆨ Ir ㆮ Ainn ㆴ Final P
ㆣ Gu ㆩ Ann ㆯ Aunn ㆵ Final T
ㆤ Ee ㆪ Inn ㆰ Am ㆶ Final K
ㆥ Enn ㆫ Unn ㆱ Om ㆷ Final H
Pinyin (拼音 pīnyīn) literally means "join together sounds" (a better translation being "phoneticize") in Chinese and usually refers to Hanyu pinyin (汉语拼音, literal meaning: "Han language pinyin"), which is a system of romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration to roman script) for Mandarin Chinese used in the People's Republic of China. Pinyin was approved in 1958 and adopted in 1979 by its government. It superseded older transcriptions like the Wade-Giles system (1859; modified 1912) or Bopomofo. Similar systems have been designed for Chinese dialects and non-Han minority languages in the PRC. Cantonese also has a pinyin-type system called Penkyamp, whose name derives from the same word as pinyin, albeit articulated in the Cantonese dialect.
Since then, pinyin has been accepted by the Library of Congress, The American Library Association, and most international institutions as the transcription system for Mandarin. In 1979 the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as the standard romanization for Modern Chinese.
It is important to maintain the distinction that pinyin is a romanization and not an anglicization; that is, it is equally applicable for transliteration into any language that uses a roman alphabet. Indeed some of the transliterations in pinyin such as the "ang" ending, do not correspond to English pronunciations. Pinyin has also become a useful tool for entering Chinese language text into computers.
The primary purpose of pinyin in Chinese schools is to teach Mandarin pronunciation. Many in the West are under the mistaken belief that pinyin is used to help children associate characters with spoken words which they already know, but this is incorrect as many Chinese do not use Mandarin at home, and therefore do not know the Mandarin pronunciation of words until they learn them in elementary school through the use of pinyin.
Pinyin uses the Roman alphabet, hence the pronunciation is relatively straightforward for Westerners. A pitfall for novices is, however, the unusual pronunciation of "x", "q" and (for English speakers) "c" and "z". The sounds represented by "x" and "q" in Western languages don't exist in Chinese, so the Pinyin system "recycles" them and assigns them other sounds: "x" represents a soft "sh" (like the "sh" in "sharp" but not as fully sounding), "q" represents a soft "ch" (again, like the "ch" in "chin" but not quite). The "c" is pronounced like "ts", "z" like "ds". Finally, "ü" stands for the same sound as in German and "u" is pronounced like "ü" if it follows "y", "x", "j" or "q". The combined initials, vowels, and finals represent the segmental phonemic portion of the language.
More detailed pronuciation rules:
a: IPA [a], [e], as in "father"
ai: IPA [ai], like English "eye", but a bit lighter
an: IPA [an], [ən], as in "can" if following "y", as in "unbelievable" otherwise
ar: IPA [aɹ], like a, but pronounced with the tongue curled up against the palate; like rhotic are in North American English
ao: IPA [au̯], approximately as in "cow"; the a is much more audible than the o
b: IPA [p], unaspirated "p", like the English "b" but with a bit more pressure
c: IPA [tsʰ], like "ts"
ch: IPA [tʂʰ], as in "chin"
d: IPA [t], unaspirated "t", like the English "d" but with a bit more pressure
e: IPA [ɤ], a backward, unrounded vowel, which can be formed by first pronouncing a plain continental "o" and then spreading the lips without changing the position of the tongue; when followed by "n", it is pronounced more like the first sound in "an"
ê: IPA [ɛ], as in French "ecole"
ei: IPA [ei], as in "hey"
er: IPA [ɝ], like e, but pronounced with the tongue curled up against the palate; similar to the vowel in rhotic her in English
f: IPA [f], as in English
g: IPA [k], unaspirated "k", like the English "g" but with a bit more pressure
h: IPA [x], like the English "h" if followed by "a"; otherwise it is pronounced more roughly (not unlike the Scottish "ch")
i: IPA [i], like English "ee", except when preceded by "c", "ch", "r", "s", "z" or "zh"; in these cases it sounds similar to e (described above), but not as open
ie: IPA [iɛ], the initial i sounds like English "ee", but is very short; e (pronounced like ê) is pronounced longer and carries the main stress
iu: IPA [iou̯], pronounced like iou
j: IPA [tɕ], like zh, but not as "full", about halfway between zh and z (unaspirated t + s)
k: IPA [kʰ], as in English
l: IPA [l], as in English
m: IPA [m], as in English
n: IPA [n], as in English
o: IPA [u̯], [ʊ], an open continental "o", as in German "Hof"
ong: IPA [ʊŋ], here, o is a sound somewhere in between English "o" as in "song" and English "u" as in "bush"
p: IPA [pʰ], as in English
q: IPA [tɕʰ] like ch, but not as "full", about halfway between ch and Pinyin c
r: IPA [ʐ], similar to the English "r" in "rank" with a bit of the initial sound in French "journal" in it (I know this sounds strange at first, but try it!)
s: IPA [s], as in "sun"
sh: IPA [ʃ], as in "shinbone"
t: IPA [tʰ,] as in English
u: IPA [u], [y], like English "oo", except when preceded by y, x, j or q; in this case it is pronounced like ü
uo: IPA [uo], the u is pronounced shorter and lighter than the o
ü: IPA [y], as in German "üben" or French "lune"
üe: IPA [yɛ], e is pronounced like ê, the ü is short and light
w: IPA [w], as in English, but many people pronounce it as in German w; not pronounced at all if followed by u
x: IPA [ɕ], like sh, but not as "full", about halfway between sh and s
y: IPA [j], as in English; not pronounced at all if followed by i or ü
z: IPA [ts], like ds, but with more pressure (unaspirated counterpart of c)
zh: IPA [tʂ], as in English "jungle", but with more pressure (unaspirated counterpart of ch)
Pinyin differs from other Romanizations in several aspects, such as:
W is placed before syllables starting with u.
Y is placed before syllables starting with i and ü.
Ü is written as u when there is no ambiguity (such as ju, qu and xu), but written as ü when there are corresponding u syllables (such as lü and nü)
When preceded by a consonant, iou, uei, and uen are simplified as iu, ui, un (which do not represent the actual pronunciation).
What is pronounced as muo an puo are pinyinized as mo an po.
The apostrophe (') is used to separate syllables in a word where ambiguity could arise, e.g., pi'ao (皮袄) vs. piao (票), and Xi'an (西安) vs. xian (先).
Eh! alone is written as ê; elsewere as e. Schwa is always written as e.
zh, ch, and sh can be abbreviated as , ĉ, ŝ . But the shorthands are rarely used due to difficulty to entering in computer.
ng has the uncommon shorthand of ŋ.
The Pinyin system also incorporates suprasegmental phonemes to represent the four tones of Mandarin. Each tone is indicated by a diacritical mark above a non-medial vowel. In the following examples, the vowel used as an example is a.
First tone is represented by a macron (ˉ) added to the pinyin vowel:
Second tone is denoted by an acute accent (ˊ):
Third tone is symbolized by a caron (ˇ, also known as a reverse circumflex). Note, it is officially not breve (˘, lacking a downward angle), although this misuse is somewhat common on the Internet.
Fourth tone is represented by a grave accent (ˋ):
Fifth tone is represented by a regular vowel without any accent mark:
(In some cases, this is also written with a dot before the syllable; for example, ·ma.)
Since most computer fonts do not contain the macron or caron accents, a common convention is to postfix the individual syllables with a digit representing their tone (e.g., "tóng" (tong with the rising tone) is written "tong2"). The digit is numbered as the order listed above, except the "fifth tone", which, in addition to being numbered 5, is also either not numbered or numbered 0, as in ma0 (吗, an interrogative marker).
The pinyin vowels are ordered as a, o, e, i, u, and ü. Generally, the tone mark is placed on the vowel that first appears in the order mentioned. Liú is a superficial exception whose true pronunciation is lióu. And since o precedes i, óu (contracted to ú) is marked.
These tone marks normally are only used in Mandarin textbooks or in foreign learning texts, but they are essential for correct pronunciation of Mandarin syllables.
A dieresis or an umlaut is occasionally used over the vowel u in conjunction with the tonal marks when placed after the initials l and n, which distinguishes between rounded-u and unrounded-u sounds. However, the umlaut-u is not used after the semiconsonant y and after the consonants j, q, and x. This practise is opposed to Wade-Giles, which always uses ü, and Tongyong Pinyin, which always uses yu.
Many fonts or inputs do not support diaeresis (umlaut) for ü, v is used instead by convention. Occasionally, uu (double u) or U (capital u) is used in its place.
Pinyin of Postal System (unrelated)
Combining diacritic marks Unicode #U0300
Pinyin in Taiwan
The Republic of China (or Taiwan) is in the process of adopting a modified version of pinyin (currently Tongyong Pinyin). For elementary education it has used zhuyin, and for romanization there is no standard system in general use on Taiwan despite many efforts to standardize on one system. In the late-1990s, the government of Taiwan formally decided to move from zhuyin to pinyin. This has triggered a very heated discussion of which pinyin system to use, hanyu pinyin of People's Republic of China or some other systems.
Much of the controversy centered on issues of national identity because of political interests. Proponents for adopting pinyin maintained that it is a international standard that is already used throughout the world. Proponents for adopting a new system maintain that Taiwan should have its own identity and culture apart from People's Republic of China.
A new system Tongyong Pinyin was created in Taiwan in 1998. Tongyong pinyin is mostly similar to Hanyu pinyin with a few changes for the letters of certain sounds.
On October 2002, the ROC government has adopted tongyong pinyin but through an administrative order which local governments can override. Localities with governments controlled by the Kuomintang, most notably Taipei City, have overridden the order and converted to hanyu pinyin (although with a slightly different capitialization convention than the Mainland). As a result, English signs have inconsistant romanization in Taiwan with most places using Tongyong Pinyin but some using Hanyu Pinyin. This has resulted in the odd situation in Taipei City in which inconsistent pinyin are shown in freeway directions, with freeway signs, which are under the control of the national government, using one pinyin, but surface street signs, which are under the control of the city government, using the other.
As of 2003, no form of pinyin is used in elementary education on Taiwan to teach pronunciation. Although the ROC government has stated the desire to use romanization rather than bopomofo in education, the lack of agreement on which form of pinyin to use and the huge logistical challenge of teacher training has stalled these efforts.
Penkyamp (拼音; Yale: ping1 yam1, Jyutping: ping1 jam1) or Cantonese pinyin, is a romanization system for transliterating Cantonese Chinese. Series of romanization efforts of Cantonese seek to standardize the language spoken by large number of residents in Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Sydney, Auckland, Vancouver and San Francisco, from the status of a vernacular to that of a literary language. On the other hand, the Linguistic Society Hong Kong adopts another Cantonese Romanization called Jyutping, which is not yet popularized among Cantonese-English or English-Cantonese dictionaries. The current most widely accepted system for Cantonese Romanization are Meyer-Wemp and Yale.
The two systems are improvements from previous systems. The features of Penkyamp includes:
reflects the vowel system of Cantonese more systematically than Jyutping by recognizing all long-short vowel contrasts,
whereas Jyutping only recognizes short a and long a.
indicates long and short vowels using the unique orthographic feature of altering the ending consonant of the shengmu.
does not have the ambiguous distinction between "oe" and "eu" (as in Jyutping).
treats the two (not three) front-round vowels using the same silent vowel letter "e", placed before the substantial vowel
categorizes the other front-round vowel (an underdeveloped one) as a short "o".
does not use the consonant "j", which is used in traditional Cantonese anglicization as "z" instead of "y" (as in Jyutping).
In terms of practicality and visual esthetics Jyutping is not a clumsy or ugly system.
Drawing a parallel between Cantonese and Japanese, Penkyamp is analogous to the Kunrei system, whereas Jyutping to the Hepburn system.
The following descriptions applies to Penkyamp.
A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P (q) S T U W Y Z
Shengmus (Consonants aided by International Phonetic Alphabets. In order to see proper display of IPA, you must download a Unicode font)
B [p] unaspirated
C [ts'] aspirated
D [t] un...
G [k] un...
K [k'] asp...
P [p'] asp...
T [t'] asp...
Z [ts] un...
C is [ts'] as "tz" in Politzer.
Z [tz] is the unaspirated form of C.
q is a glottal stop, Arabic "hamsa", as it appears in Cantonese interjection lâq, which is interchangeable with lâg.
long: A E I O U Eo Eu
short: Ah Eh Oh
diphthongs1: Ai Oi Ui Au Iu Ay Ey Oy Aw Ow
diphthongs2: single vowels and diphthongs1 preceded by semi-vowel u, such as uay as in guây (expensive)
Yunmus aided by International Phonetic Symbols
A [a] ("a" alone or followed by "g", "b", "d", "ng", "m", "n", "i", "u")
E [ɛ] open-mid front unrounded
O [ɔ]-mid back rounded
Eo [ɶ] open-mid front rounded
Ah [ɠ]-mid back unrounded ("a" followed by "h", "k", "p", "t", "nk", "mp", "nt", "y", "w")
Eh [e] close-mid front unrounded ("e" followed by above)
Oh [o] close-mid back rounded ("o" followed by above)
Oy [øy] (ø is mid-close front rounded)
Short vowels are those in short yunmus, and long vowels in long yunmus. All short vowels are pronounced with tighter, smaller enclosure of lips than are their long counterparts.
Long yunmus followed by consonants:
Ab Ad Ag
Am An Ang
Ib Id Im In
Od Og On Ong
Short yunmus followed by consonants:
Ap At Ak
Amp Ant Ank
Ot Ok Ont Onk
Yin1Ping2 or high Yin1Ru4 (Yamp1Penk4 cum high Yamp1Yap6): a1, ä (umlaut)
Yin1Shang3(Yamp1Seong5): a2, ã (tilde)
Yin1Qu4 or low Yin1Ru4 (Yamp1Hoy3 cum low Yamp1Yap6): a3, â (circumflex)
Yang2Ping2(Yeong4Penk4): a4, a (plain)
Yang2Shang3(Yeong4Seong5): a5, á (acute)
Yang2Qu4(Yeong4Hoy3): a6, à (grave)
6 tones represented by numerical scales of pitch, "1" being the lowest, "6" the highest"
First: "Zäw" tone, scale= 66
Second: "Hãw" tone, scale= 35
Third: "Dîm" tone, scale= 44
Fourth: "Ho" tone, scale= 11
Fifth: "Mów", scale=24
Sixth: "Dòw", scale=22
Either the tone numbers 1-6 or the diacritic marks may be used
note: a shortcut for memorizing all 6 of them is a couplet:
Zaw1 Haw2 Dim3, Ho4 Mow2 Dow6
Zhou1 Kou3 Dian4, He2 Mu3 Du4 (Mandarin)
Zhoukoudian is an archeological site near Beijing containing a 500,000 year old Homo Erectus habitat; Hemudu is a Zhejiang archeological site of Neolithic human activities
Text sample in the Standard Cantonese Penk3yamp1 (simplified chinese text are place holders for now):
trad. simp. pinyin Penkyamp meaning
北京 北京 Bei3 jing1 Bak1 genk1 Beijing
花 花 Hua1 Fa1 flower
寫 寫 Xie3 Se3 write
字 字 Zi4 Zi6 chinese character
我 我 Wo3 Ngo5 I, me
湖 湖 Hu2 Wu4 lake
靴 靴 Xue1 Heo1 boot
柱 柱 Zhu4 Ceu5 pillar
吧(?) 啦(?) ba4 lah1 one of the interjections at the end of a sentence
壞 壞 Huai4 Wai6 bad
外 外 Wai4 Ngoi6 outside
背 背 Bei4 Bui3 back
教 教 Jiao1 Gau3 teach
腰 腰 Yao1 Yiu1 waist
肺 肺 Fei4 Fay3 lung
地 地 Di4 Dey6 ground
追 追 Zhui1 Zoy1 pursue
狗 狗 Gou3 Gaw2 dog
路 路 Lu4 Low6 road
鴨 鴨 Ya1 Ngab3 duck
殺 殺 Sha1 Sad3 kill
百 百 Bai3 Bag3 hundred
三 三 San1 Sam1 three
慢 慢 Man4 Man6 slow
行 行 Xing2 Hang4 walk
劇 劇 Ju4 Keg6 drama
鏡 鏡 Jing4 Geng3 mirror
頁 頁 Ye4 Yib6 page
熱 熱 Re4 Yid6 hot
劍 劍 Jian4 Gim3 sword
線 線 Xian4 Sin3 thread
渴 渴 Ke3 Hod3 thirst
國 國 Guo2 Guog3 state,nation
岸 岸 An4 Ngon6 shore
幫 幫 Bang1 Bong1 help
活 活 Huo2 Wud6 to live
換 換 Huan4 Wun6 exchange, replace
急 急 Ji2 Gap1 hasty
失 失 Shi1 Sat1 lost
得 得 De2 Dak1 gain
心 心 Xin1 Samp1 heart
新 新 Xin1 Sant1 new
生 生 Sheng1 Sank1 student
食 食 Shi2 Sek6 to eat
精 精 Jing1 Zenk1 essence
出 出 Chu1 Cot1 outside
哭 哭 Ku1 Hok1 to cry, weep
信 信 Xin4 Sont3 to trust
中 中 Zhong1 Zonk1 middle
ÀÁAÂÃÄ, ÈÉEÊ(Ẽ)Ë, ÌÍIÎ(Ĩ)Ï, ÒÓOÔÕÖ, ÙÚUÛ(Ũ)Ü;
àáaâãä, èéeê(ẽ)ë, ìíiî(ĩ)ï, òóoôõö, ùúuû(ũ)ü;
From Common Western Font missing: E-tilde I-tilde U-tilde
E-tilde is obtainable from Vietnamese font Ẽ ẽ
I-tilde is obtainable from Vietnamese font Ĩ ĩ
U-tilde is obtainable from Vietnamese font Ũ ũ
Wubi, short for Wubizixing (五笔字型 pinyin wu3 bi3 zi4 xing2), is an input method for writing Chinese text on a computer.
The Wubi method is based on the structure of characters rather than their pronunciation, making it possible to input unfamiliar characters, as well as not being too closely linked to any particular Chinese dialect.